Plenary Talks

Plenary Talks

Plenary Session 1:

Monday Plenary

Monday, September 17, 08:30-09:20, Changsha

Pulsed Power Science and Applications on Sandia’s Z Machine

Dr.Daniel Sinars

Radiation & Fusion Physics at Sandia National Laboratories, USA.

Sandia’s 26 MA, 20 MJ “Z Machine” is presently the world’s largest fast pulsed power machine, delivering up to 80 TW of electrical power in a 100ns pulse. The facility is used for applied research in dynamic materials, radiation sources, and fusion sources. This talk will provide an overview of the research done on the Z Machine, as well as additional pulsed power technology maturation efforts being done at Sandia as we consider possible architectures for a larger-scale driver.

Dr.Daniel Sinars

Radiation & Fusion Physics at Sandia National Laboratories, USA.

Daniel Sinars received the B.Sc. degree in engineering physics from University of Oklahoma in 1996, and the Ph.D. degree in applied physicsfromCornell University in 2001.

He is currentlyaSenior Managerat Radiation & Fusion Physics Group, Sandia National Laboratories with the responsibility of overseeing research in Inertial Confinement Fusion, Radiation Effects, and High Energy Density Physics using the "Z" pulsed power facility.He leads development of numerous x-ray & spectroscopy diagnostics for Z facility. Most notable example is development of monochromatic x-ray backlighting, which has been the primary radiographic technique for the facility.

Dr. Daniel Sinars was elected as a Fellow of American Physical Society in 2015. He won the Excellence in Fusion Engineering Award from Fusion Power Associates in 2014, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE) in 2011, Department of Energy Early Career Research Program Award in 2011, and IEEE Nuclear Plasma Sciences Society Early Achievement Award in 2007. And he has more than 125 refereed journal publications (25 as first author) and h-index rating of 36.

  

 

Plenary Session 1:

Monday Plenary

Monday, September 17, 09:20-10:10, Changsha

Design of a high reliability 4 MV flash X-ray facility

Prof. WeipingXie

China Academy of Engineering Physics, China

For the use of high valuable fluid dynamics experiment, a 4 MV flash X-ray facility with the name of Sirius is designed and manufactured at Institute of Fluid Physics (IFP), China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP).  The Sirius can deliver 4 MV, 100 kA60 ns electric pulse to a 40 Ω matched diode. A novel high reliability technique is adopted with less active high-power gas switch, Tesla transformer, induction voltage adder (IVA) and rod-pinch diode (RPD).

The Sirius consists six-module IVA.  Each module is identical and composed of a Tesla transformer, intermediate storage capacitor, laser trigger gas switch, pulse forming line, self-breaking oil switch, water transmission line, and one induction cavity. And the primary stored energy in Tesla transformer is discharged in 4 µs into the intermediate storage capacitor. When the two capacitors of the Tesla pulse transformer are charged to ±60 kV,the operating voltage will be about 1.2 MVat the intermediate capacitor. And then the intermediate capacitor is switched out by the laser triggered gas switch to a 4 Ω, 30 ns pulse forming line. And the pulse forming line is discharged by the self-breaking oil switch to 7 Ω water transmission line. Thus, the forwarding going voltage wave is about 800 kV, 65 ns and added by six induction cavitiesat each water transmission line section. At last, the 4 MV, 65 ns positive voltage pulse can be obtained to drive a 40 Ω RPD.

The reliability and stability are the key issues of the facility. There are three key factors for the high reliability. Firstly, there is only one gas switch for the Tesla transformer to replace Marx generator. Secondly, it has low pre-fire probability and jitter of the laser triggered gas switch. Every laser gas switch is triggered by one 266 nm laser independently. Thirdly, it is designed by the conservative electrical stress. So, the Sirius has the reliability up to 98% in the case of 1.5 mm source diameter, and 10 Rad dose at a 1mdistance. Here, the Sirius is 5 m wide 5 m high 17 m long with 12 triggered gas switch and 6 oil self-breakdown gap.

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Prof. WeipingXie

China Academy of Engineering Physics, China

Dr.WeipingXie was born in Chongqing in 1964. He received B.S degree from Huadong Normal University in 1988, and M.S and Ph.D degree from TsinghuaUniversity in 1990 and 2005, respectively. He is now the deputy director of the Institute of Fluid Physics (IFP), China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP). He also serves as senior scientist in national project, and is members of Chinese Accelerator Society, Chinese Pulsed Power Society. His main research interests are pulse power technology and application, including high current pulse generation, compact pulsed power, electromagnetic implosion, material compression and so on.

He was one of the major project leaders of the Primary Test Stand, the first multi-module TW facility in China, which came into operation in 2013. As former director of the pulsed power department in IFP, he has hosted several national research projects. He has received more than ten awards from national administration for his prominent contribution in technology innovation and progress.

  

 

Plenary Session 2:

Tuesday Plenary

Tuesday, September 18, 08:30-09:20, Changsha

Compact pulsed power systems for X-pinch based soft X-ray backlighting

Dr.StanislavChaikovsky

Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS),

Ekaterinburg, Russia

Soft X-ray radiography with high temporal and spatial resolutions is a powerful tool of plasmas diagnostics. An X-pinch is two or more fine wires which are crossed in the shape of “X” and exploded under the action of the current pulse. The high-temperature plasma “hot-spot”, which serves as an X-ray source, is generated at the cross point of the wires. The “hot spot” has several micrometers in size and lifetime about 1 ns. The parameters of such x-ray sources make them attractive for use in the projection radiography of various short-lived physical objects.

The main requirements imposed on the pulsed power generator are the current amplitude 100-300 kA and the rate of the current rise 1-2 kA/ns. The design of a compact pulsed generator which provides the required parameters makes it possible to use X-pinch backlighting techniques in any laboratory worldwide. In this report, a number of compact capacitor bank generators with the current peak of 150-250 kA and the rise-time of 150-200 ns are described. Such X-pinch driver could be placed within a 1x1 m laboratory area. The driver could be is connected to the X-pinch load unit by means of a flexible low-inductance transmission line. The flexibility of the transmission line is an additional advantage, since it allows precision of the X-ray radiography system adjustment to be improved and the X-pinch to be located near the sample investigated. Two (or more) separate drivers could be synchronized well with arbitrary delay in order to realize multi-frame X-ray backlighting system. The driver’s design, their operation and backlighting experimental results will be presented.

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Dr.StanislavChaikovsky

Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS), Ekaterinburg, Russia

StanislayChaikovsky received the B.Sc. degree from Tomsk State University in Russia in 1986, and the M. Sc. and the Ph. D. degrees from Institute of High Current Electronics (IHCE), Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences in 2001 and 2004, respectively. In 2016, he finished another doctoral thesis focusing on experimental research of dense radiative plasma formation at nanosecond mega-ampere pulses

Since 2015, Dr.StanislayChaikovsky is Head of Institute of Electrophysics of the Ural Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEP UD RAS). His research interests include working Fast Z-pinches, X-pinches, hot dense plasma, vacuum discharges, plasma diagnostics and pulsed power.

  

 

Plenary Session 2:

Tuesday Plenary

Tuesday, September 18, 09:20-10:10, Changsha

High-power (kilo watts) broadband Gyro-amplifiers operating in terahertz range

Dr.Wenlong He

Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, UK

The gyrotron travelling wave amplifiers (Gyro-TWA) are high power coherent broadband sources that excel at high frequencies (up to the terahertz range) and have many applications including electron spin resonance, fast data-rate communications, high resolution RADAR, plasma diagnostics and remote sensing. Recent breakthrough in the research and development of the gyro-TWAs at University of Strathclyde has resulted in unprecedented operating frequency bandwidth and output power. This is due to ideal dispersion properties existed in a helically corrugated interaction region (HCIR). The principle and frequency scalability of the gyro-TWAs using HCIRs are discussed with a review of operation and achievements in the X-band frequency. Demonstration and experimental results at 90-100 GHz frequency will be presented. Current work of the gyro-TWAs operating in the higher terahertz range will also be presented.

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Dr.Wenlong He

Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, UK

Wenlong He received the B.Sc. degree in physics from Soochow University in 1983, the M.Sc. degree in accelerator physics from the China Academy of Engineering Physics in 1988, and the Ph.D. degree in high power microwave from the Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde in 1995.

He is currently an Advanced Fellow with the Scottish Universities Physics Alliance. His main research interests include relativistic electron beams, FELs (Free Electron Lasers), Gyro-TWA/BWOs (Gyrotron travelling wave amplifiers/backward-wave oscillators), MB-TWTs (multi-beam travelling wave tubes) for mm-wave/terahertz amplifications. Dr He leads a research team carrying out cutting-edge research on high power mm-wave and terahertz generation and amplification using both fast and slow wave interaction structures. Dr He's team has carried out a large number of world-leading experiments in the field of high power microwave, millimetre wave and terahertz radiation generation using relativistic electron beams.

Dr He has authored over 100 refereed journal papers including 7 published in Physical Review Letters. He is a guest editor for IEEE Trans. on Plasma Science Special Edition. Dr He leads an international research MARTHA (the MAgnetic Resonance enabled by TeraHertz Amplifiers) consortium that consists from the world leading EPR(Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) and DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) experts from ETH Zurich, Bruker Biospin, the University of St Andrews, etc.

  

 

Plenary Session 3:

Wednesday Plenary

Wednesday, September 19, 08:30-09:20, Changsha

Research on Electrical Explosion of Wire in Tsinghua University

Prof. Xinxin Wang

Tsinghua University, Beijing China

Electrical Explosion of Wire (EEW) is performed with a pulsed current flowing through a metallic wire. As the energy deposited into the wire by Joule heating increases, the wire undergoes the rapid phase transitions (solid ® liquid ® vapor ® plasma). When the wire starts vaporization, the wire resistance dramatically rises and then one of the three discharge modes (cutting-off current, restrike, breakdown) occurs, depending on the wire voltage and the density of the expanded metallic vapor along the wire surface. In the different medium (vacuum, gas, liquid, solid) surrounding the wire, EEW behaves differently and thus has the different applications. In this paper, we present the experimental results of EEW obtained by Tsinghua University, including EEW in vacuum for X-pinch and Z-pinch, EEW in gases for the nanopowder production and EEW in liquid for the generation of shock waves.

Prof. Xinxin Wang

Tsinghua University, Beijing China

XinxinWang received the B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, in 1983, 1986 and 1990, respectively. He was a Post doctoral Fellow at the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from 1990 to 1992. As a Visiting Scholar he did research on plasma focus from 1994 to 1995 in Universitaet Stuttgart of Germany and research on capillary discharge soft X-ray laser in 1996 and 1997 in Technische Hochschule Darmstadt of Germany and Universitaet Dusseldorf of Germany. He is now a full professor with the Gas Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering in Tsinghua University, Beijing, China and doing research on gas discharge and pulsed power technology. He has been the principle investigator of many academic projects. He is the author of more than 200 research papers in international journals.

  

 

Plenary Session 3:

Wednesday Plenary

Wednesday, September 19, 09:20-10:10, Changsha

Pulsed Power Technology and Advanced Accelerators

Prof. Ken Takayama

Accel. Lab, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan

Evolution of modern accelerators base on the recent development in pulsed power technology is quite remarkable. Accelerators where all pulse components are driven by solid-state devices are no longer a dream. In this context, notable activities to realize the dream are going on in Japan and Korea. They will be reviewed at the conference, where the following topics are included,
(1) Alternative of Thyratorn in Klystron modulators. (2) Switching device for a chopper, electrostatic injection kickers and extraction kicker magnet and their performance in beam experiments. (3)Switching power supply for circular induction accelerators such as an induction synchrotron and induction microtron. (4) Acceleration of a heavy ion beam employing these pulsed power devices Details of R&D works on original devices, novel concept, and their successful demonstration/daily-use in Japan and Korea will be described.

Prof. Ken Takayama

Accel. Lab, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Japan

Ken Takayamareceived the Ph. D. degree in nuclear science in Tohoku University in Japan in 1980.

From 1980 to 1983, Ken Takayama was an associate scientist at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in USA, working on the design of Fermilab 8 GeV antiproton accumulator ring. From 1983 to 1990, he was an associate professor at High Energy Physics Laboratory (present KEK). From 1990 to 1991, he was a guest scientist at University of Houston and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

Since 1992, he is a scientist in KEK in Japan, where he became a professor in 2001. His major expertise includes accelerator physics: accelerator design and beam dynamics, free electron laser, pulsedpower technology, microwave technology and applications of high energy proton and heavy ions.

In 2006, he was awarded Prizes for Science and Technology by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of Japan for “Induction Acceleration in a High Energy Circular Accelerator”. In 2008, he received the 21st Century Invention Prize in Japanfor the work on all-ion accelerators based on the induction synchrotron concept.

  

 

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